锦灰堆

打翻字纸篓

When I was learning to write in my teens, it seemed to me that paper was a prison. Four walls, right? And the ideas were constantly trying to escape. What is a parenthesis but an idea trying to escape? What is a footnote but an idea that tried — that jumped off the cliff? Because paper enforces single sequence — and there’s no room for digression — it imposes a particular kind of order in the very nature of the structure.

— Ted Nelson, demonstration of Xanadu Space

“纸张围堵,括号是试图逃逸的想法,脚注是被迫跳崖的想法。”🤣🤣🤣

在 Deleuze & Guattari 的写作,尤其是《千高原》中,最明显的结构是一个往复三元组:to-fro-forth,oui-non-si,root-radicle-rhizome,结域-解域-再结域,纵轴-横轴-对角线,……不过以上这些例子的图案都不同。如“结域-解域-再结域”的 Z 字形,重点在再结域时引入的那点差异。对角线则涉及到维度问题 (dimension of curve)。root-radicle-rhizome 是过渡,统一→切碎的统一→碎,或者说 n-1 的关系:

Subtract the unique from the multiplicity to be constituted; write at n – 1 dimensions.

n-1 理解起来很简单,字面意思无非是指把 n 里面的 unity 给拿掉。更进一步,用数学语言来说,这样实际上有 n-1 degrees of freedom because the last element is always uniquely determined by the others. 参见下面这个问题对矩阵自由度的解释:

linear algebra – Degrees of freedom for a matrix – Mathematics Stack Exchange

记得还有个关于短篇小说的三元组,但忘记了具体,等看到再说吧。

Thought is structured neural activity.

Language is inextricable from thought and experience.

Neural computation involves continuously finding a best match between the inputs and current brain state, including our goals.


2020-05 / 07 / 16:47:33 / embodied mind

空间关系和视觉系统有关,动作的体貌(时间结构)和运动系统有关。

Thought and language are neural systems. They work by neural computation, not formal symbol manipulation.

注意这里的 embody 指的是”与身体结合”

2020-05 / 12 / 19:01:21 / 信息立足于可感知的差异

Information in the technical sense, and therefore information processing, is based on detectable differences.

2020-05 / 13 / 14:07:28 / functionalism

Philosophical functionalism holds that everything important about language and thought can be understood completely using information processing models, without looking at the brain at all. An even stronger position claims that any information processing system of sufficient complexity will automatically have all of the mental powers of the mind, including consciousness. This stance is also called strong artificial intelligence—-there is nothing to the mind but abstract information processing.

2020-05 / 13 / 14:15:18 / 分子——磁铁和弹簧

My best physical metaphor for this is to imagine elaborate abstract sculptures made of strong springs and magnets. Fitting two of these contraptions together could cause a total reconfiguration of shape and might even cause some pieces to break off and take on a new shape. This is what happens in molecular binding, but the forces involved are much stronger relative to the size of the molecules than could actually be built with magnets and springs. The changing shape of molecules is the basis for all animal action. Think of the forces exerted by leaping whales or frogs to get a feeling for the power involved. A frog can jump twenty times its length—-equivalent to a 100-foot standing broad jump for a person.

2020-05 / 13 / 14:47:49 / 神经元投票和学习

If that were all there was to it, the information processing would be easy: if the positive votes outnumber the negative votes by a big enough margin (called a threshold), then output a signal. But not all input votes get equal weight in this election; some count more than others. And, as in the United States, only a fraction of voters usually participates. There is also a time limit, so the neuron needs to compare the weighted sum of positive votes against the weighted negative votes arriving in an interval. If the positive total outweighs the negative total by a big enough margin, a signal is sent out.

Compelling evidence exists that learning depends on the change of synaptic weights; this modification is realized through several kinds of chemical changes involving protein synthesis at both the transmitting and receiving sides of the synapse.

2020-05 / 13 / 18:49:08 / 视觉系统察觉变化和模式

For example, one way the visual system avoids being flooded by data is by only transmitting changes in a scene. We have all experienced this phenomenon in hearing—-a repetitive noise is dis- turbing for a while and then we stop noticing it.


The visual system has cells (as our simulation has people) that take signals from a collection of feature detectors and send an output if there is some pattern of interest. For example, a center-surround cell can signal when it sees a green center surrounded by red. A vertical-edge cell can signal when the detectors on its left report more brightness than those on its right. There are also intermediate cells that use memory to compare signals across time and report motion.

2020-05 / 18 / 19:28:52 / 学习改变脑部结构

When the strength of connections between neurons is modified, we have a funda- mental structural change. The neural network is now different and will respond differently to new experience. That is, learning does not add knowledge to an unchanging system—-it changes the system.

2020-05 / 18 / 19:30:16 / 基因图灵机

In protein synthesis it matters not just which genes are involved, but also which are expressed, that is, actually used to make proteins. Every cell has the same genetic informa- tion; other factors determine exactly which proteins are synthesized. The modern view of this process is more like a computer program than a stencil. Often the role of one protein is to facilitate or block the expression of genetic material in the synthesis of some other proteins.

2020-05 / 18 / 19:38:28 / 神经系统如何布线

Neurons are also cells and, in early development, behave somewhat like an amoeba in approaching and avoiding various chemicals. But rather than the whole cell moving, neural growth involves the cell's connecting pathway (axon) reaching out toward its downstream partner neurons. The basic layout of visual and other maps is established during devel- opment by billions of neurons each separately following a pattern of chem- ical markers to its predestined brain region and specific subareas within that region.

2020-05 / 18 / 19:55:45 / 化学梯度和行为强化

For the task of wiring up visual maps, gradient following greatly simpli- fies nature's information processing requirements. The axon of a develop- ing visual neuron will follow the gradient of a marker chemical related to its destination, analogous to the amoeba's moving in the direction of food. A neuron destined for the upper left section of the scene in a visual map will therefore follow two separate chemical gradients that mark areas cor- responding to leftness and to higher elevation in the target map.

In fact, the initial wiring is only approximate and leaves each neu- ronal axon connected to several places in the neighborhood of each of its eventual partner neurons. A second, activity-dependent mechanism is required to complete the development process.

2020-05 / 18 / 20:41:52 / 婴儿的神经元更多

The initial chemical wiring actually produces many more connections and somewhat more neurons than are present in adult brains. The detailed tuning of neural connections is done by eliminating the extra links as well as strengthening functional synapses. This has been known for decades.

这听起来很”象征界创伤”......

2020-05 / 18 / 20:43:54 / 如何训练视网膜

However, there is no vision in the womb. Recent research shows that systematic moving patterns of activity are sponta- neously generated prenatally in the retina. A predictable test pattern, changing systematically over time, provides excellent training data for tuning the connections between visual maps (Stellwagen & Schatz 2002).

2020-05 / 18 / 20:58:58 / 记忆

We now know that this kind of short-term memory depends on ongoing electrical activity in the brain. You can keep something in mind by rehearsing it, but this interferes with your thinking about anything else.

These long-term memories are known to be based on structural changes in the synaptic con- nections between neurons. ... , and this can take several hours.

In addition to bridging the time gap, the brain needs mechanisms for converting the content of a memory from electrical to structural form. (写硬盘和写内存的区别)

问题是如何从错误中学习?


梦境和记忆:

There is general agreement and consid- erable evidence that dreaming is important in consolidating memory and involves simulating experiences.

2020-05 / 18 / 21:12:09 / 衰老的步伐

Participants who had been given the words related to old age walked significantly slower than participants who had done a version of the word jumble task that did not prime the elderly stereotype. This result sounds unlikely, but the finding has since been repli- cated by a number of labs. Thus, it appears that unconsciously activating a concept may influence motor processes (e.g., walking) related to that concept.

#read #neuroscience

1

These encounters with imitative repetition can therefore include a “hesitation,” an “internal opposition,” a decision point to adopt or reject the fashion.

潮流把人卷进去,而非一个主体做了“发起和继续传递潮流”的决定。但在经过节点时,流会减速,这个减速区就是 Tarde 所定义的主体性(不是主体)。

They encourage friendship as a “tendency to desire what is best for the other” through expressions of feelings like sympathy, empathy, honesty, trust, mutual understanding, and compassion, which all become covertly coupled to the economic value of friendship established through data mining, customized advertising, and booming sales.

友情经济

It marks out new endeavors to uncover the invisible presocial currents that relate users to each other, and the products, brands, and services they consume, in the hope of triggering profitable mesmeric cascades. Infectable emotions, feelings, and affects have in effect become the favored focal point for experience designers and neuromarketers.

催眠瀑布,体验设计师,神经营销,HCI 从人体工学(身体)转向心理学(注意力、记忆、情感)

Tarde is far more concerned with how the spreading of open-ended imitative repetitions blur the self–other divide than he is with the conscious (or unconscious) sharing of images. ... Indeed, Tarde’s diagram is not a psychology at all. It is a relational ontology!

下面是对涂尔干的概述,a top-down determinism:

Paradoxically perhaps, without anomie, there is no social need to express moral or legal rules, which are always worked out via the averaging of the opinion of the collective consciousness. In other words, the emergence of deviations from the norm results in social actors formally coming together to reject what is contrary to the common good.

It is, however, Durkheim’s notion of dynamic density that arguably makes him the forefather of an altogether different theory of social complexity and collective emergence from that suggested in Tarde’s diagram.

以及,Tarde 设法取消界限:

There is no “absolute separation,” he counters, “of this abrupt break, between the voluntary and the involuntary...between the conscious and the unconscious....Do we not pass,” he argues, “by insensible degrees from deliberate volition to almost mechanical habit?”

由于界限的模糊,自由意志/心智问题也迎刃而解了。似乎只有在硬化的主体面前,“机械还是自由意志”才成为一个问题。

In fact, what Marsden picks up on in this description of engineered imitation draws on Tarde’s idea that to succeed, a competing fashion must imitate (“assume the mask of”) an older custom “fallen into discredit and rejuvenate [it] for the needs of her cause.” On the face of it, this is a neo-Darwinian Trojan horse, by any other name.

这几段列举了一些对 Tarde 的僭用(?),比如上文的“为了颠覆现存风尚,新的风尚必须模仿(冒用)这种已经朽坏的风尚,但将其翻新收为己用”。所谓新达尔文主义木马。实际上,Tarde 的 imitate 并不带有生存的目的性,也不分输家和赢家。毋宁说是一股潜流。

#read #tarde

The discourse of struggle is not opposed to the unconscious, it’s opposed to the secret. This seems a let down, but what if the secret were worth much more? A whole series of equivocations concerning what is “hidden,” “repressed,” “unspoken,” enables a cheap “psychoanalysis” of what should be the object of political struggle. The secret is perhaps more difficult to bring to light than the unconscious. The two themes which only yesterday we came across once again, that “writing is the repressed” and that “writing is by rights subversive,” in my opinion betray several operations which must be severely criticized.

揭示秘密比说出无意识更困难?

Perhaps it has to do with investments, as much economic as unconscious: there exist investments of desire which explain that one can if necessary desire not against one’s interest, since interest always follows and appears wherever desire places it, but desire in a way that is deeper and more diffuse than one’s interest.

常见批判,对于马克思,人们提到「不仅有利益」……但更进一步,利益是跟着欲望走的。利益总是出现在欲望所指定的位置。所以只有欲望投资。了解这一点,我们就知道精神分析等对欲望的描述何以太简陋,因为它是针对现存利益种类而生的,缺乏前瞻性,本身就是为了固化。

By engaging in this struggle which is their own (they are perfectly familiar with its targets, and they themselves determine the methods), these people enter the revolutionary process – as allies of the proletariat, of course, since power is exercised in the way that maintains capitalist exploitation. These people truly serve the cause of the proletariat revolution by fighting precisely at that point where they suffer oppression.

#foucault #deleuze

Praxis is a network of relays from one theoretical point to another, and theory relays one praxis to another. A theory cannot be developed without encountering a wall, and a praxis is needed to break through. Take yourself, for example, you begin by theoretically analyzing a milieu of imprisonment like the psychiatric asylum of nineteenth-century capitalist society. Then you discover how necessary it is precisely for those who are imprisoned to speak on their own behalf, for them to become a relay (or perhaps you were already a relay for them), but these people are prisoners, they’re in prison. This was the logic behind your creating the GIP (Group for Information on Prisons): to promote the conditions in which the prisoners themselves could speak. It would be totally misguided to say, as the Maoist seemed to be saying, that you were making a move toward praxis by applying your theories. In your case we find neither an application, nor a reform program, nor an investigation in the traditional sense. It is something else entirely: a system of relays in an assemblage, in a multiplicity of bits and pieces both theoretical and practical. For us, the intellectual and theorist have ceased to be a subject, a consciousness, that represents or is representative. And those involved in political struggle have ceased to be represented, whether by a party or a union that would in turn claim for itself the right to be their conscience. Who speaks and who acts? It’s always a multiplicity, even in the person that speaks or acts. We are all groupuscles. There is no more representation. There is only action, the action of theory, the action of praxis, in the relations of relays and networks.

德勒兹关于配置的解释:理论在自我发展的过程中要求引入实践来排除障碍,完成下一个环节,而非理论独居于外「指导」实践并以一种辩证的关系相互促成什么的;比如福柯经过理论研究发现了囚犯为自己发言的重要性,于是需要一种给他们铺设说话渠道的实践,为此建立了监狱信息小组 GIP。这就在配置中形成了一套接力的系统,理论和实践作为零部件在一个多元体内互相接驳,而不是意为身主。知识分子不是一个群体的代表或「意识」,而是和斗争中的人们接通成一体的多元体中的神经元(可以这么说吗?)甚至这多元体中的个体也都是多元体。没有代表,只有行动,理论和实践皆是行动,编成了一张接力之网

福柯接着补充道:

So it is that theory does not express, translate, or apply a praxis; it is a praxis – but local and regional, as you say: non-totalizing. A struggle against power, a struggle to bring power to light and open it up wherever it is most invisible and insidious. Not a struggle for some ”insight” or ”realization” (for a long time now consciousness as knowledge has been acquired by the masses, and consciousness as subjectivity has been taken, occupied by the bourgeoisie) – but a struggle to undermine and take power side by side with those who are fighting, and not off to the side trying to enlighten them. A ”theory” is the regional system of this struggle.

理论本就是一种实践,不是吗?局部的实践;反对权力、把权力从阴影里拉出来并展开其隐蔽之处的实践;不是那种为了发现真理或启示的实践。现在是要和人们肩并肩斗争,而不是跳出三界外试图「启蒙」他们。

As soon as a theory takes hold at this or that point, it runs up against the impossibility of having the least practical consequence without there being an explosion, at some distant point if necessary. That’s why the idea of reform is so stupid and hypocritical.

第一句有点难解,可以粗略阐释为:理论天生与权力相反,它从不「总体化」(统战?),所以一旦某种理论开始占统治地位,它就无法引发一场开启实践行为的爆炸。因此「改革」的想法伪善愚蠢,永不可能根据某种理论而「改良」。改良之时,便是理论被权力网络攫获而僵死之日。

#foucault #deleuze

翻译和照搬自 Norman toponymy – Wikipedia

前诺曼底

大城市

大部分主要城市用的是罗马化的凯尔特地名。

公元前

法语 拉丁语 拆分 释义
Rouen Rotomagus wheel + place wheel market
Bandizip Catumagus battle + place battlefield
Carentan Carentomagus
Vernon Vernomagus alder-tree + place plain of the alder-trees

公元后

大部分是把古罗马 civitas(一种行政区)的罗马高卢地名改名为当地部落的名字:

地名 civitas 原名 释义
Bayeux Bajocassensis Augustodurum forum dedicated to Augustus
Evreux Eburovicensis Mediolanum
Lisieux Lexoviensis Noviomagus new market
Avranches Abrincatii Ingena / Legedia

例外:

地名 原名 释义
Coutances Constantia dedicated to Emperor Constantius Chlorus
Lillebonne Juliobona dedicated to Julius + foundation / spring

法国北部地名常见套路

  • -acum: 意思是 “place of” 或者 “property”,源自凯尔特语的 -āko(n);后来缩合成 -ay, -ai, -ey, , -y 等形式。例如:Gournay, Bernay, Cernay, Andilly;
  • 高卢或拉丁男性名字:Massy from Gaulish Mascius; Marcilly from Roman Marcellus; Fleury from Roman Florius; Montigny from Roman Montanius;
  • -acum 结合基督教或日耳曼名字:Repentigny, from the Christian name Repentin(i)us;最常见的是 Glatigny,在诺曼底有 40 多个。

罗曼式地名要素

源自通俗拉丁语。

-ville or Ville-, meaning “farm”, and later “village” -court, Cour-, or Cor-, meaning “farm with a courtyard” -val or Val-, meaning “small valley” -mont or Mont-, meaning “hill” -mesnil, -menil or Mesnil-, meaning “property”

一般来说,-court, -ville, and -mesnil 这三者用于原日耳曼领地/村落,所以语序也是日耳曼的「定语+地名称谓」,例如:

  • Neuville, meaning “new village”
  • Bourville (Bodardi villa, 8th century) meaning “Bodard's farm”
  • Harcourt (Herolcurt, 11th century) meaning “Herulf's farm”
  • Attemesnil (Ademesnil, 13th century) meaning “Adda's property”

以上规律大约占法国地名 1/3,主要是北部。

通俗拉丁语和凯尔特来源的则相反,是「地名称谓+定语」,在奥克语地区和西部风行。同样是 “new village”,奥克语形式就是 Villeneuve 而非 Neuville。

-ville

-court

-mesnil or Mesnil-

-bosc or Bosc-

-vast

诺曼底

#read #situationist

Citizenship is identified with the right to be forced to partake of the spectacle, which transforms the promotion of all beings and things reduced to commodity status into varieties of nihilism. It is this double feeling of frustration — as human being and as citizen-spectator-producer-consumer of encroaching emptiness — that in May 1968 unleashed a first chain reaction in which subjective energy in the process of liberating itself shook French society to its foundations. In a flash, the immense hope of the reversal of a world reversed was illuminated — a matter of taking the time to ask oneself, “And if it was possible?” — to even the darkest consciousness.

“Terrorism or Revolution” — an introduction to Ernest Coeurderoy

八议最初源于西周时期的八辟,自魏明帝制定新律时,首次将其写入法典之后,一直是后代法典中一项基本的重要制度,历经一千六百多年相沿不改。

八议者除犯十恶以外的死刑,司法机关不能直接审理,必须先将其犯罪事实及应享受特权的理由奏请皇帝,由皇帝交群臣集议后,最后由皇帝作出裁决,一般可免除死罪。若犯流刑以下的罪,则可直接减一等处罚。但是犯十恶者不适用八议的规定。

  • 议亲:皇帝的亲属
  • 议故:皇帝的故旧
  • 议贤:德行高尚,其言论行动可作为法则者
  • 议能:能整顿军旅,治理内政,为皇帝出谋划策,师范人伦者
  • 议功:对朝廷尽忠效力,建立大功勋的人
  • 议贵:三品以上高级官员及有一品爵位的人
  • 议勤:高级文武官员中恪尽职守,专心致志办理公务的人
  • 议宾:前朝国君的后裔

八议 — 维基百科,自由的百科全书

#read #cybernetics

One can point to the year 1943 as the beginning of Wiener’s final decisive period of accomplishment. This was the year the original small group of outstanding scientists-physicists, engineers, mathematicians, physiologists, began holding their first discussion groups for the purpose of advancing the new application of control principles on to the biological organism. For this new kind of study which pooled men from all branches of science, Wiener in 1947 gave the name CYBERNETICS (the greek word κυβερνήτης meaning steersman, or its stem meaning governor).

A Tribute to Norbert Wiener — Cybernetics of the Nervous System

The word cybernetics comes from Greek κυβερνητική (kybernētikḗ), meaning “governance”, i.e., all that are pertinent to κυβερνάω (kybernáō), the latter meaning “to steer, navigate or govern”, hence κυβέρνησις (kybérnēsis), meaning “government”, is the government while κυβερνήτης (kybernḗtēs) is the governor or “helmperson” of the “ship”.

Cybernetics — Wikipedia