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打翻字纸篓

翻译和照搬自 Norman toponymy – Wikipedia

前诺曼底

大城市

大部分主要城市用的是罗马化的凯尔特地名。

公元前

法语 拉丁语 拆分 释义
Rouen Rotomagus wheel + place wheel market
Bandizip Catumagus battle + place battlefield
Carentan Carentomagus
Vernon Vernomagus alder-tree + place plain of the alder-trees

公元后

大部分是把古罗马 civitas(一种行政区)的罗马高卢地名改名为当地部落的名字:

地名 civitas 原名 释义
Bayeux Bajocassensis Augustodurum forum dedicated to Augustus
Evreux Eburovicensis Mediolanum
Lisieux Lexoviensis Noviomagus new market
Avranches Abrincatii Ingena / Legedia

例外:

地名 原名 释义
Coutances Constantia dedicated to Emperor Constantius Chlorus
Lillebonne Juliobona dedicated to Julius + foundation / spring

法国北部地名常见套路

  • -acum: 意思是 “place of” 或者 “property”,源自凯尔特语的 -āko(n);后来缩合成 -ay, -ai, -ey, , -y 等形式。例如:Gournay, Bernay, Cernay, Andilly;
  • 高卢或拉丁男性名字:Massy from Gaulish Mascius; Marcilly from Roman Marcellus; Fleury from Roman Florius; Montigny from Roman Montanius;
  • -acum 结合基督教或日耳曼名字:Repentigny, from the Christian name Repentin(i)us;最常见的是 Glatigny,在诺曼底有 40 多个。

罗曼式地名要素

源自通俗拉丁语。

-ville or Ville-, meaning “farm”, and later “village” -court, Cour-, or Cor-, meaning “farm with a courtyard” -val or Val-, meaning “small valley” -mont or Mont-, meaning “hill” -mesnil, -menil or Mesnil-, meaning “property”

一般来说,-court, -ville, and -mesnil 这三者用于原日耳曼领地/村落,所以语序也是日耳曼的「定语+地名称谓」,例如:

  • Neuville, meaning “new village”
  • Bourville (Bodardi villa, 8th century) meaning “Bodard's farm”
  • Harcourt (Herolcurt, 11th century) meaning “Herulf's farm”
  • Attemesnil (Ademesnil, 13th century) meaning “Adda's property”

以上规律大约占法国地名 1/3,主要是北部。

通俗拉丁语和凯尔特来源的则相反,是「地名称谓+定语」,在奥克语地区和西部风行。同样是 “new village”,奥克语形式就是 Villeneuve 而非 Neuville。

-ville

-court

-mesnil or Mesnil-

-bosc or Bosc-

-vast

诺曼底

#read #situationist

Citizenship is identified with the right to be forced to partake of the spectacle, which transforms the promotion of all beings and things reduced to commodity status into varieties of nihilism. It is this double feeling of frustration — as human being and as citizen-spectator-producer-consumer of encroaching emptiness — that in May 1968 unleashed a first chain reaction in which subjective energy in the process of liberating itself shook French society to its foundations. In a flash, the immense hope of the reversal of a world reversed was illuminated — a matter of taking the time to ask oneself, “And if it was possible?” — to even the darkest consciousness.

“Terrorism or Revolution” — an introduction to Ernest Coeurderoy

八议最初源于西周时期的八辟,自魏明帝制定新律时,首次将其写入法典之后,一直是后代法典中一项基本的重要制度,历经一千六百多年相沿不改。

八议者除犯十恶以外的死刑,司法机关不能直接审理,必须先将其犯罪事实及应享受特权的理由奏请皇帝,由皇帝交群臣集议后,最后由皇帝作出裁决,一般可免除死罪。若犯流刑以下的罪,则可直接减一等处罚。但是犯十恶者不适用八议的规定。

  • 议亲:皇帝的亲属
  • 议故:皇帝的故旧
  • 议贤:德行高尚,其言论行动可作为法则者
  • 议能:能整顿军旅,治理内政,为皇帝出谋划策,师范人伦者
  • 议功:对朝廷尽忠效力,建立大功勋的人
  • 议贵:三品以上高级官员及有一品爵位的人
  • 议勤:高级文武官员中恪尽职守,专心致志办理公务的人
  • 议宾:前朝国君的后裔

八议 — 维基百科,自由的百科全书

#read #cybernetics

One can point to the year 1943 as the beginning of Wiener’s final decisive period of accomplishment. This was the year the original small group of outstanding scientists-physicists, engineers, mathematicians, physiologists, began holding their first discussion groups for the purpose of advancing the new application of control principles on to the biological organism. For this new kind of study which pooled men from all branches of science, Wiener in 1947 gave the name CYBERNETICS (the greek word κυβερνήτης meaning steersman, or its stem meaning governor).

A Tribute to Norbert Wiener — Cybernetics of the Nervous System

The word cybernetics comes from Greek κυβερνητική (kybernētikḗ), meaning “governance”, i.e., all that are pertinent to κυβερνάω (kybernáō), the latter meaning “to steer, navigate or govern”, hence κυβέρνησις (kybérnēsis), meaning “government”, is the government while κυβερνήτης (kybernḗtēs) is the governor or “helmperson” of the “ship”.

Cybernetics — Wikipedia

#read #canetti

集团的目标始终是同一目标。人类的一切生活过程所特有无穷无尽的反复性,也是人类的集团的特点。规定性和反复性在这里导致的结果是具有不可思议的恒久性的组织。正是这种恒久性,正是人们始终是有准备好的、可支配的组织这一事实,使得这些组织在更为复杂的文明中也有可用之处。凡是在要迅速召集群众的地方,这些组织作为群众结晶会一再得到利用。

·

另有一种英格兰乌拉仪式,这类仪式是部落生活中最重要的和最庄严的事件,在这种场合,年轻男子在一个长条形的丘陵上依次平躺在地上,许多小时一声不吭地躺着。这种成排躺着的活动给常反复进行,每一次持续8个小时,从晚上9点持续到第二大早上5点。

·

他们把嫩叶子作为纺织材料,男人们用它织成拉菲亚布。与他们的邻族不同,所有的里里族男人都会织布。他们把方块状的拉菲亚布当作货币来使用。从这种棕榈树还可提取一种非发酵的酒,这种酒很受土人珍爱。

·

不过,每隔三天女人们要离开森林一次,她们必须在前一天储备好食物、柴火和水。森林在里里族人看来是男人们的领域。

森林有无比的威望。里里人提到它时带着几乎是诗人的激情……他们时常强调森林和衬子是完全不冋的。在灼热难当的白天,在很脏的村子里厌烦燥热,他们乐意到清凉、黝暗的森林里。他们离不开森林里的工作,在这工作使他们感到愉快,在其他地方工作既单调又辛苦。他们说:‘村子里度如年,森林里光阴似箭’.男人们夸口说,他们能够在森林里整天工作而不觉得饿,在村子里他们总是会不由自主地想到吃的东西。

他们说,好的食物应该来自森林,那里的食物既于净又卫生,例如野猪和羚羊。老鼠和狗都是不洁的,名之为哈马,哈马同样用来称呼脓和排泄物;山羊和猪也是不洁的,这恰恰是因为它们是在村子里养大的。

·

猎物的分配具有特殊的意义。分配按严格的规则进行,而且其方式突出了狩猎的宗教意义。里里人有三种教派团体,每一个团体都有权享有特定的食物,外人无权问津。第一个教派团体是生产者团体,由抚育过孩子的男人组成。每一头猎物的胸肉以及所有幼兽的肉都属于他们。生产者中又有一些人抚育过一个男孩和一个女孩,从他们中间选出第二个只有排他性的团体的成员,称为穿山甲人他们之所以被称为穿山甲人,是因为只有他们才有权吃穿山甲的肉。第三个团体是占卜者团体,他们分享野猪的头和肠。

·

希皮博人(秘鲁印加帝国的一部分)相信大食蚁兽有神秘的力量,它们是丛林中的骗术师。根据传说,大食蚁兽骗美洲豹交换皮毛,然后就没再换回来。所以现在所有的美洲豹其实都是大食蚁兽,而大食蚁兽其实是美洲豹。

·

吉瓦罗斯族人互相寻找是为了互相报复,就这种情况而言,可以把血腥报复看作他们的社会粘合剂。

·

敌人的首级经过处理缩成橘子般大小,从此这颗头就叫做塔桑塔萨( Tsantsa).这样一颗首级的主人因此受到了特别的尊重。

·

这些咒文以及庆典的所有其他活动的中心是塔桑塔萨,掳获来的、经过处理而缩小的敌人首级。敌人的灵魂总是停留在首级的附近,它是极端危险的。他们千方百计要控制它。一旦能够把它变得有用,它的用处是很大的。它会照料人们所养的猪和鸡的繁衍,树薯也由于它而繁衍,它能带来幸福,这也是人们想以繁衍的形式获得的东西。但是要想完全使它屈服并不容易。起初它充满了复仇的欲望,它会对人做出各种各样的坏事。但是,人们用来降服它的仪式和祭典,其数目多得令人吃惊。延续数天的庆典以人们完全控制这颗首级以及属于这颗首级的灵魂而结束。

·

他们希望云层不要停留在天空,而是要变成雨倾注下来。云是友好的群众,这点从他们视云如同祖先就可以看出来。亡魂随雨云而返,带来幸福。当雨云在夏日的午后出现在天空时,人们对孩子们说:“你们看,你们的祖父回来了。”这里的祖父不是指这一个家庭的亡魂,而是泛指祖先。

因此,在普埃布罗人的生活中,祖先、孩子、雨和玉米是基本群众,如果我们按照因果顺序来排列的话那就是:祖先、雨、玉米和孩子。

他们对死亡并不大惊小怪,并且努力尽快忘掉死者,死亡四天之后,酋长提醒族人说,不要再想死者了,他已经死了四年”,死亡被置之脑后,痛苦由此消失。他们看不起哀恸集团:他们拒绝哀伤。

·

当我发现危险的时候,我想叫我的朋友们往回走;他们也这么做了。而我本人则被人群拥挤着往前,一直到大门的附近,在那里所有的人都在为保自己的命而斗争。我看到我自已必死无疑了,我拼尽全力往回跑。一位总督的军官,从肩章上的星肴是一个上校,他也发现了危险,并且也试图往回跑。他抓住我的衣服,把我推倒在一个奄奄一息的老人身上。这个军官把我推倒之后,我们就在将死的人和巳死的人中间,由于绝望而勇气倍增地互相拼搏着。我和这个奄奄一息的老人厮打起来,直到我彻底把他打倒。我终于又站了起来。后来我了解到,这个老人再也没有站起来。

#read #byzantine

  • 罗马人拉弓用拇指和食指,波斯人用另外三根手指。
  • 骑兵应该练习马上快速切换弓矛。
  • arithmos/tagma/numerus 有大概 300-400 人,2 个及以上 tagma 形成一个 moira(旅),2 个及以上 moira 形成一个 meros(师)。
  • baldric: 挂武器(剑)的肩带。

For the more handsome the soldier is in his armament, the more confidence he gains in himself and the more fear he inspires in the enemy.

The bucellary troops, Bucellarii, were originally soldiers employed by private individuals. Recruited from both Romans and barbarians, they came to form part of the regular army and eventually setded in the Boukellarion theme in Asia Minor.

#word

A poliorceticon (Greek: πολιορκητικόν, also transliterated poliorketikon, poliorketika in the plural) is any member of the genre of Byzantine literature dealing with manuals on siege warfare, which is formally known as poliorcetics. As with much Byzantine literature, the poliorcetica tend to be compendia of earlier guides illustrated with Biblical and Classical anecdotes. The extent to which they might be up-to-date or representative of actual experiences in the field is sometimes questionable and greatly depends upon the author.

Poliorcetica — Wikipedia

#read #virilio

“Propaganda must be made directly by words and images, not by writing,” states Goebbels, who was himself a great promoter of audiovisuals in Germany. Reading implies time for reflection, a slowing down that destroys the mass's dynamic effi­ciency.

街道的潮汐,人群,城市堤坝:

The street is like a new coastline and the dwelling a sea-port from which one can measure the magnitude of the social flow, predict its overflowings. The doors to the city are its tollbooths and its customs posts are dams, filtering the fluidity of the masses, the penetrating power of the migrating hordes.

驯化人群,居住权:

The “right to lodging” is not, as was claimed, the “right to enter the city.” Like the inorganic mass of wild animals, the proletarian horde carries a menace, a load of unpredictability and ferocity. It is allowed as “domestic” to gather and reproduce near the dwellings of men, under their watchful eye.

城市是战略点:

As we saw before, wherever these conditions are fulfilled, there are population centers; where there is traffic, there is also the urban area. To recapitulate, the conditions that obtained at the birth of the great cities are always those that make these cities important strategic points.

Speed and Politics — 1.1 From Street Fight to State Right

#read #braudel

15至18世纪物质文明、经济和资本主义 第二卷

第一章 交换的工具

  • “市场的普及相当缓慢”

欧洲:

  • 十二世纪起价格就在波动状态,是近代市场建立的证明
  • 集市基本在城市,乡村集市不值得重视
  • 初级集市:第一手交易,因而最透明,很少有赊账
  • 对集市的监视和压制
  • 可以商讨家庭或事务性契约,如土地买卖和订婚
  • 因市政管理问题,新市场会被挪到城门口、墙外、市郊、桥头等,但城墙又会外扩
  • “一有空地出现,集市就去占领”,比如冬天上冻的莫斯科河
  • 巴黎中央菜场,女商贩人数比男的多
  • “英国生活的现代化随着伦敦的扩张而开始”

#read #foucault

If I employ the word “liberal,” it is first of all because this governmental practice in the process of establishing itself is not satisfied with respecting this or that freedom, with guaranteeing this or that freedom. More profoundly, it is a consumer of freedom. It is a consumer of freedom inasmuch as it can only function insofar as a number of freedoms actually exist: freedom of the market, freedom to buy and sell, the free exercise of property rights, freedom of discussion, possible freedom of expression, and so on.

The Birth of Biopolitics — Three: 24 January 1979