Virality: Contagion Theory in the Age of Networks


These encounters with imitative repetition can therefore include a “hesitation,” an “internal opposition,” a decision point to adopt or reject the fashion.

潮流把人卷进去,而非一个主体做了“发起和继续传递潮流”的决定。但在经过节点时,流会减速,这个减速区就是 Tarde 所定义的主体性(不是主体)。

They encourage friendship as a “tendency to desire what is best for the other” through expressions of feelings like sympathy, empathy, honesty, trust, mutual understanding, and compassion, which all become covertly coupled to the economic value of friendship established through data mining, customized advertising, and booming sales.


It marks out new endeavors to uncover the invisible presocial currents that relate users to each other, and the products, brands, and services they consume, in the hope of triggering profitable mesmeric cascades. Infectable emotions, feelings, and affects have in effect become the favored focal point for experience designers and neuromarketers.

催眠瀑布,体验设计师,神经营销,HCI 从人体工学(身体)转向心理学(注意力、记忆、情感)

Tarde is far more concerned with how the spreading of open-ended imitative repetitions blur the self–other divide than he is with the conscious (or unconscious) sharing of images. ... Indeed, Tarde’s diagram is not a psychology at all. It is a relational ontology!

下面是对涂尔干的概述,a top-down determinism:

Paradoxically perhaps, without anomie, there is no social need to express moral or legal rules, which are always worked out via the averaging of the opinion of the collective consciousness. In other words, the emergence of deviations from the norm results in social actors formally coming together to reject what is contrary to the common good.

It is, however, Durkheim’s notion of dynamic density that arguably makes him the forefather of an altogether different theory of social complexity and collective emergence from that suggested in Tarde’s diagram.

以及,Tarde 设法取消界限:

There is no “absolute separation,” he counters, “of this abrupt break, between the voluntary and the involuntary...between the conscious and the unconscious....Do we not pass,” he argues, “by insensible degrees from deliberate volition to almost mechanical habit?”


In fact, what Marsden picks up on in this description of engineered imitation draws on Tarde’s idea that to succeed, a competing fashion must imitate (“assume the mask of”) an older custom “fallen into discredit and rejuvenate [it] for the needs of her cause.” On the face of it, this is a neo-Darwinian Trojan horse, by any other name.

这几段列举了一些对 Tarde 的僭用(?),比如上文的“为了颠覆现存风尚,新的风尚必须模仿(冒用)这种已经朽坏的风尚,但将其翻新收为己用”。所谓新达尔文主义木马。实际上,Tarde 的 imitate 并不带有生存的目的性,也不分输家和赢家。毋宁说是一股潜流。

#read #tarde